Formerly the square of arms was a Swamp, was dried during the time of the Incas, after the conquest was occupied by the Spaniards, they surrounded mansions and palaces the place of arms, where Tupac Amaru II was executed in 1781. But today our square is surrounded by restaurants Jewelery and craft shops.
When Manco Capac arrived in the valley of Cuzco, he settled in the vicinity of a swamp located between two streams because that place was free of the threats of the neighboring ethnic groups. He made his palace at the base of the plateau of Sacsayhuamán and the city was always erected around the marsh. Sinchi Roca, son and successor of Manco Capac dried the swamp with land brought from the mountains8 and later Pachacútec was in charge of drying it completely covering the swamp with sand brought from the coastal coast.
During the Inca period, the main square was more extensive than the current Plaza de Armas. In addition to the current square (formerly Huacaypata), it occupied all the land of the present square of rejoicing (formerly cusipata), the “Hotel Cusco” and the stables To the side of the middle street. Just these blocks and the middle street were crossed by a stream called Saphy (currently covered and made sewer), which divided the square in its two sectors already known. This stream during the incanate was channeled through its entire urban route, and the part that crossed the square was covered as a tunnel. The present square of arms was only the sector Northeast of the main square, being the southwest sector the call Cusipata.
It was the religious and administrative center of the Incanate. Around the square were the palaces of Pachacútec, Huayna Capac and Inca Viracocha. During the Incanat, it was where almost all the Inca festivals were celebrated, including Inti Raymi, Huarachicuy, the Amaru dance, Capac Raymi, etc. It was there also where the main fairs were held and where the victories of the Inca army were celebrated.
When the Spaniards arrived in Cuzco, they stayed in the Inca palaces around the square. Later, they built colonial mansions, cathedrals, temples and chapels on the Inca palaces. In 1542, the city council of Cuzco, Sebastián Garcilaso de la Vega Vargas (father of the chronicler Inca Garcilaso de la Vega) authorized the construction of large houses in the middle of the large square. In this way, the Saphy stream was completely covered, the square was divided three (Plaza de Armas, Plaza Regocijo, and Plazoleta de la Merced) to be divided by the new constructions (Hotel Cusco, Portal Commerce and Portal Espinar).
In 1545 the corregidor Polo of Ondergardo had to remove the sand of beach that was in the floor of the place to use it in the construction of the cathedral of Cuzco.
Currently the Plaza de Armas is located in the historical center of Cusco, and is surrounded by tourist restaurants, jewelers, travel agencies tourist shops, etc. The temples built around them are maintained as such, and as museums. Most of the buildings have some Inca walls and more than any colonial style.